Relatively common, chronic and non-contagious skin disease. It is cyclical, that is, it presents symptoms that disappear and reappear periodically. Its cause is unknown, but it is known that it may be related to the immune system, interactions with the environment and genetic susceptibility. It is believed that it develops when T lymphocytes (cells responsible for the defense of the organism) release inflammatory and vessel-forming substances. Immune responses are then initiated, which include dilation of the skin's blood vessels and infiltration of the skin with defense cells called neutrophils, as the skin cells are being attacked, their production also increases, leading to a rapid evolutionary cycle, with consequent large scale production due to the immaturity of the cells. This cycle means that both dead cells cannot be eliminated efficiently, forming thick, scaly patches on the skin. Usually, this chain is only broken with treatment. It is important to note: the disease is not contagious and contact with patients need not be avoided. The association of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, cardiometabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, various types of cancers and mood disorders is frequent. The pathogenesis of comorbidities in patients with psoriasis remains unknown. However, there are hypotheses that common inflammatory pathways, cell mediators and genetic susceptibility are involved.
Plaque or common psoriasis: most common manifestation of the disease. It forms dry, reddish plates with silvery or whitish scales. These plaques itch and sometimes hurt, reaching all parts of the body, including the genitals. In severe cases, the skin around the joints may crack and bleed.
Nail psoriasis: affects fingernails and toenails. It makes the nail grow abnormally, thicken, scale, change color and even deform. In some cases, the nail may come off the nail bed.
Scalp psoriasis: reddish areas with thick silvery-white scales appear, especially after scratching. The patient may notice the flakes of dead skin on his hair or on his shoulders, especially after scratching his scalp. It resembles dandruff.
Guttate psoriasis: it is usually triggered by bacterial infections, such as throat infections. It is characterized by small, drop-shaped wounds on the trunk, arms, legs and scalp. The wounds are covered by a fine scale, unlike the typical psoriasis plaques that are thick. This type affects more children and young people before the age of 30.
Inverted psoriasis: mainly affects moist areas, such as armpits, groins, under the breasts and around the genitals. They are inflamed and red spots. The condition can worsen in obese people or when there is excessive sweating and friction in the region.
Pustular psoriasis: in this form of psoriasis, spots, blisters or pustules (small blister that appears to contain pus) can occur on all parts of the body or in smaller areas, such as hands, feet or fingers (called palmoplantar psoriasis). It usually develops quickly, with pus blisters that appear a few hours after the skin turns red. The blisters dry out within a day or two, but they can reappear for days or weeks. Generalized pustular psoriasis can cause fever, chills, severe itching and fatigue.
Erytodermic psoriasis: it is the least common type. It affects the whole body with red spots that can itch or burn intensely, leading to systemic manifestations. It can be triggered by severe burns, untimely treatments (such as the use or abrupt withdrawal of corticosteroids), infections, or by another type of poorly controlled psoriasis.
Arthropathic psoriasis: in addition to skin inflammation and peeling, psoriatic arthritis, as it is also known, causes severe joint pain. It most commonly affects the joints of the toes and hands, spine and hip joints and can cause progressive stiffness and even permanent deformities. It can also be associated with any clinical form of psoriasis.
Psoriasis can be treated with moisturizing creams such as PsoSeptil Cream (has healing and bactericidal properties) applied to the lesions and daily exposure to the sun also contributes to the absorption of vitamin D.