It is a chronic inflammatory vascular disease, with remissions and exacerbations, also erroneously called "acne rosacea", because acne is a disease of the sebaceous gland, totally different from rosacea, either by cause or age, or by clinical aspects and characteristics in general. Rosacea occurs in 1.5% to 10% of the studied populations. It occurs mainly in adults between 30 and 50 years of age. It is more frequent in women, but affects many men and, in them, the condition tends to be more severe, evolving continuously with rhinophyma (gradual enlargement of the nose due to thickening and dilation of follicles). It rarely occurs in blacks. The origin of rosacea is not yet known. There is an individual predisposition (more common in whites and descendants of Europeans) that may be familiar (30% of cases have a positive family history), showing a possible genetic basis. There is a strong influence of psychological factors (stress). Today, it is considered important the participation of a mite of the normal skin flora called Demodex folliculorum, and of the bacteria Bacillus oleronius, which colonize this fungus. The presence of erythema and telangiectasias in the central region of the face, accompanied by papules and pustules, generally does not present any difficulty in the diagnosis of rosacea. The patient can keep a diary of the worsening (and remissions) relating this to his activities, diet, stress and other factors.
Rosacea is a disease that affects the skin mainly in the centrofacial region. It is characterized by sensitive skin, usually drier, which starts to become erythematous (red) easily and is irritated by acids and dermatological products, in general. Gradually, the redness (erythema) tends to become permanent and thin vessels (telangiectasias), papules and pustules that resemble acne appear, and edema and nodules may occur. Eye symptoms, dry eye and sensitive to inflammation on the eyelid edges (blepharitis) often appear. In the pre-rosacea phase, there is mild erythema on the face, which worsens with outbreaks of varying duration, appearing spontaneously or due to the factors mentioned. Gradually, episodes can become frequent and even permanent. One symptom can be more prominent than another, varying widely from person to person. The lesions do not necessarily evolve. Typical signs and symptoms:
Facial flushing - periods of abrupt sensation of redness and heat on the skin as if it were an outbreak of vasodilation;
Telangiectasias - dilation of small permanent vessels;
Persistent facial erythema - possible facial edema;
Papulus-pustules - nodules may occur; the papules may, when numerous, form granulomatous plaques (lupoid rosacea);
Rhinophyma - irregular and lobulated thickening of the nose skin, follicular dilation, leading to enlargement and deformation of the nose. These thickening can occur in areas other than the nose, such as the frontal region, cheeks (cheekbones) and auricular pavilions;
Eye changes - occur in 50% of cases (irritation, dryness, blepharitis, conjunctivitis and keratitis).
Rosacea cases that have milder manifestations, usually can be treated only with the use of topics, such as ointments and creams. The components of these products have anti-inflammatory, microbiotic and antibiotic action. There is no cure for rosacea, but there is treatment and control, with many recent advances. It all depends on the clinical stage the patient is in.
The treatment of Rosacea can be done with ChelatoDerme.